Welcome to the first of a series of articles about Italian Wine Regions: we will explain the region, the grapes, the wines and DOCG, DOC and IGT Appellations .
Although Lombardy is developing a reputation for its sparkling wines from Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese, the wine industry has less importance here than the region’s other industries. Lombardy offers some outstanding conditions for vine growth with influences from the Alps to the North, the lakes of Garda, Iseo, Como and Maggiore and the Apennines in the south. Its wines offer great variety and character, with a mixture of modern and traditional, as well as native and foreign grape varieties.
Stretching from the Alps to the Po river banks, through Italy's famed Lake District (left) and the Pianura Padana lowlands (right), Lombardy offers plenty of environments suitable for world-class wine production.
The region’s sparkling wine industry is buoyant with some fine bottle fermented Pinot Nero based wines coming from the productive Oltrepò Pavese area. These are produced according to what is known as metodo classico and there is now a Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico DOCG. The tank method is also commonly used although it is the metodo classico wines of which the Lombardians are most proud. Most wines from Oltrepò Pavese are not sold as DOC though its wines are diverse and interesting, including reds from Pinot Nero and Barbera and sleek modern whites from Riesling and Moscato.
Franciacorta DOCG is the best known of the sparkling wines, made with grapes grown on the slopes around Lake Iseo. Chardonnay, Pinot Nero and Pinot Bianco are permitted and the best examples have much in common with Champagne. Only wines from the best vineyards are eligible for the DOCG, which is for sparkling wines only.
Valtellina is the most esteemed area for red wine production and its wines are especially popular with the Swiss, particularly those made with Nebbiolo.
has a DOC and a DOCG for its Superiore wines which must contain 90% Chiavennasca grapes (the local name for Nebbiolo) in the four sub-districts of Grumello, Inferno, Sassella and Valgella. The Nebbiolos from Valtellina are far removed from their counterparts in wines of Barolo and Barbaresco, as the climate and soil is vastly different, with some grapes from the most precarious parts of the mountain hauled in during the harvest using baskets on cables. The resultant wines have a distinct character of their own, much lighter than their Piedmontese counterparts yet still capable of improving for over a decade.
Determined to lift the profile of their region's enological production, Lombardy's wine makers have embraced lower yelds in the vineyard and higher vinification standards in the cellar with considerable success.
Also gaining praise abroad is the unusual Sforzato di Valtellina or Sfursat, a strong wine made with Nebbiolo grapes using the passito method of semi-drying the grapes on straw mats for extra concentration. Progress is being made in Bergamo, Mantova and Milano although Brescia is considerably more prolific in terms of the concentration of classified wines, including DOCs and DOCGs in Botticino, Capriano del Colle, Cellatica, Franciacorta, Curtefranca, Garda Bresciano, and San Martino della Battaglia. Lugana DOC, shared with Veneto, is an excellent area for white wines comparable to Soave Classico.
Lombardy DOCG wine appellations:
Franciacorta, Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico, Scanzo or Moscato di Scanzo, Sforzato di Valtellina or Sfursat di Valtellina, Valtellina Superiore
Lombardy DOC wine appellations:
Bonarda dell’Oltrepò Pavese, Botticino, Buttafuoco dell’Oltrepò Pavese or Buttafuoco, Capriano del Colle, Casteggio, Cellatica, Curtefranca, Garda, Garda Colli Mantovani, Lambrusco Mantovano, Lugana, Oltrepò Pavese, Oltrepò Pavese Pinot Prigio, Pinot Nero dell’Oltrepò Pavese, Riviera del Garda Bresciano or Garda Bresciano, San Colombano al Lambro or San Colombano, San Martino della Battaglia, Sangue di Giuda dell’Oltrepò Pavese or Sangue di Giuda, Terre del Colleoni o Colleoni, Valcalepio, Valtellina Rosso or Rosso di Valtellina, Valtenèsi
Lombardy IGT wine appellations:
Alto Mincio, Benaco Bresciano, Bergamasca, Collina del Milanese, Montenetto di Brescia, Provincia di Mantova or Mantova, Provincia di Pavia or Pavia, Quistello, Ronchi di Brescia, Ronchi Varesini, Sabbioneta, Sebino, Terrazze Retiche di Sondrio, Terre Lariane, Valcamonica